Mage: The Ascension
Template:Other uses Template:Pp-semi-indef Template:Use dmy dates Template:Greek Alphabet Alpha (uppercase Template:Script, lowercase Template:Script; Template:Lang-el Álpha) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 1. It was derived from the Phoenician letter aleph Aleph. Letters that arose from alpha include the Latin A and the Cyrillic letter А.
In English, the noun "alpha" is used as a synonym for "beginning", or "first" (in a series), reflecting its Greek roots.<ref>Alpha - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary</ref>
In Ancient Greek, alpha was pronounced Template:IPAblink and could be either phonemically long ([a:]) or short ([a]). Where there is ambiguity, long and short alpha are sometimes written with a macron and breve today: Ᾱᾱ, Ᾰᾰ.
In the polytonic orthography of Greek, alpha, like other vowel letters, can occur with several diacritic marks: any of three accent symbols (Template:Lang), and either of two breathing marks (Template:Lang), as well as combinations of these. It can also combine with the iota subscript (Template:Lang).
In the Attic-Ionic dialect of Ancient Greek, long alpha Template:IPA fronted to Template:IPAblink (eta). In Ionic, the shift took place in all positions. In Attic, the shift did not take place after epsilon, iota, and rho (ε, ι, ρ; e, i, r). In Doric and Aeolic, long alpha is preserved in all positions.<ref>Herbert Weir Smyth. Greek grammar for colleges. paragraph 30 and note.</ref>
- Doric, Aeolic, Attic Template:Lang chṓrā — Ionic Template:Lang chṓrē, "country"
- Doric, Aeolic Template:Lang phā́mā — Attic, Ionic Template:Lang phḗmē, "report"
Math and science
Template:Main The letter alpha represents various concepts in physics and chemistry, including alpha radiation, angular acceleration, alpha particles, alpha carbon and strength of electromagnetic interaction (as Fine-structure constant). Alpha also stands for thermal expansion coefficient of a compound in physical chemistry. It is also commonly used in mathematics in algebraic solutions representing quantities such as angles. Furthermore, in mathematics, the letter alpha is used to denote the area underneath a normal curve in statistics to denote significance level<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> when proving null and alternative hypotheses. In zoology, it is used to name the dominant individual in a wolf or dog pack.
The uppercase letter alpha is not generally used as a symbol because it tends to be rendered identically to the uppercase Latin A.
International Phonetic Alphabet
History and symbolism
Plutarch, in Moralia,<ref>Symposiacs, Book IX, questions II & III On-line text at Adelaide library</ref> presents a discussion on why the letter alpha stands first in the alphabet. Ammonius asks Plutarch what he, being a Boeotian, has to say for Cadmus, the Phoenician who reputedly settled in Thebes and introduced the alphabet to Greece, placing alpha first because it is the Phoenician name for ox—which, unlike Hesiod,<ref>Hesiod, in Works and Days (see on Perseus Project), advises the early Greek farmers, "First of all, get a house, then a woman and third, an ox for the plough."</ref> the Phoenicians considered not the second or third, but the first of all necessities. "Nothing at all," Plutarch replied. He then added that he would rather be assisted by Lamprias, his own grandfather, than by Dionysus' grandfather, i.e. Cadmus. For Lamprias had said that the first articulate sound made is "alpha", because it is very plain and simple—the air coming off the mouth does not require any motion of the tongue—and therefore this is the first sound that children make.
Alpha and Omega
Alpha, both as a symbol and term, is used to refer to or describe a variety of things, including the first or most significant occurrence of something. The New Testament has God declaring himself to be the "Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last." (Revelation 22:13, KJV, and see also 1:8).
The term "alpha" has been used to denote position in social hierarchy, examples being "alpha males" or pack leaders.
- Greek alpha / Coptic alfa <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
For accented Greek characters, see Greek diacritics: Computer encoding.
- Latin / IPA alpha
- Mathematical / Technical alpha